Hi! I’m hemoglobin.
I live inside red blood cells and eat all the iron in the fridge. I’m very attractive (see my photo attached). My shape changes as the number of oxygen molecules attached to me changes. The more oxygen molecules bound to me, the more attractive I become to oxygen, and the more oxygen wants to bind to me. When only one oxygen molecule is bound to me, I’m not so attractive. But when 3 oxygen molecules are bound to me, the fourth one can’t bind itself fast enough, so beautiful I become. (When I have 4 oxygen molecules attached, I can’t stop looking at myself in the mirror.) This change in my affinity for oxygen is important because it facilitates the loading of oxygen in lungs and unloading of oxygen in the muscles and other organs.
This change in my shape is how doctors and nurses know when blood’s oxygen saturation is low. You know that little finger clip they put on your finger in the hospital or doctor’s office? There’s an infrared light inside of that clip. When I change shape, I change how I refract light. So, that clip is “reading” how the infrared light is refracting because of my shape. If blood’s oxygen saturation is less than optimal (98-100% at sea-level), the light refracts differently because my shape is different. Pretty cool, huh?
How saturated I am with oxygen is determined by the partial pressure of oxygen in blood. The lower oxygen’s partial pressure, the lower my saturation. When you go skiing, hiking, or running at high altitude, the partial pressure of oxygen in the air decreases, which decreases the partial pressure of oxygen in your blood. Up to an altitude of about 3,000 feet, the drop in the air’s partial pressure of oxygen is minimal, so my saturation doesn’t change; it remains at 98-100%. But when you travel above 3,000 feet, my saturation begins to drop. That’s why it’s harder to do aerobic exercise at high altitude—because I have less oxygen bound to me as I travel through your circulatory system.
Now, tell me how beautiful of a protein I am. Want to learn more about me?
When I coached high school track and field, it was often difficult to get kids to focus on one event. With so many options in the sport, many want to run and jump and throw. I’ve tried to convince them that it’s better to be very good at one event than mediocre at multiple events. As adults, little changes. I often hear personal trainers say that they train all types of clients—weight loss clients, elite athletes, clients who want general muscle toning, seniors and so on. For their areas of expertise, they list specialties such as “weight loss,” “athletic performance,” “metabolic conditioning,” “senior fitness” and “post-injury rehabilitation” and obtain certifications for every specialty.
First of all, no one can be an expert in all of these areas. Secondly, you shouldn’t even try. That’s not the path to success. It’s tempting to train all types of clients because it seems that you could make more money with a broad focus than with a narrow one. Many of the high school athletes’ parents tell their kids to do many extracurricular activities to increase their chances of getting into college. Well, their parents are wrong. Successful people are not well-rounded. They don’t do many things. Successful people and successful businesses do one thing and do it better than everyone else. Choose a niche to specialize in and become as educated and as skilled in that niche as possible.
If you’re passionate about helping people lose weight, become a weight loss expert. Read every scientific study that has ever been done on weight loss. Open a biochemistry textbook and understand metabolism and hormones and everything that affects weight gain and loss. Volunteer for weight loss studies. Talk to scientists who have devoted their lives to researching weight loss. Learn how much, what type, and what intensity of exercise result in significant weight loss. Learn the documented habits of successful weight losers. Know the role that nutrition plays in weight loss. Know the data from the National Weight Control Registry as well as you know your parents’ names. How many trainers do you think know all this, yet still claim to be weight loss experts?
After you’ve done all your homework, become known in your community as The Weight Loss Expert. Speak to weight loss groups, give weight loss tips on TV, write a weight loss column for a local newspaper or magazine. When people ask about your services, charge a lot of money because you’re The Weight Loss Expert and they can’t get your expertise anywhere else. Riches are in the niches.
We’re told to do a lot of things softly. Librarians tell us to whisper in the library. Theodore Roosevelt told us, “Speak softly and carry a big stick.” Golfers are told to grip the golf club softly rather than strangle it. Even the hip hop group Fugees sing, “Killing me softly with his song.”
The advice I love the most is to run softly over the ground, like you’re running on eggshells, on ice, or on water. For some reason, runners, coaches, and writers on the subject seem to think that the best way to run is to strike the ground as softly as possible, trying not to crack the eggs. It seems logical, at first thought, that you would want to strike the ground softly, because striking it hard-ly would be bad, causing injuries from all that “pounding.”
But you shouldn’t always do things at first thought. When you dig deeper, into second thoughts and third thoughts and fourth thoughts, you begin to understand things on a different level. Better, quicker running comes from applying more force to the ground so that the ground reaction force applies more force to your foot, propelling you forward with each step. (Remember Isaac Newton’s third law of motion—for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction).
Running softly over eggs so as not to crack them prevents a runner from optimizing the propulsive force and increase running speed, because running speed is a function of the vertical ground reaction force—the greater the vertical force, the faster the running speed. To create a large ground reaction force, you must strike the ground with a lot of force—hard-ly instead of softly. And running hard-ly would crack a lot of eggs!
I often wonder if there are multiple training paths to success, or if there is indeed one best training path that makes a given runner the very best he or she can be. Since Olympic athletes in the same race all have different coaches and therefore don’t train exactly the same way, there are at least a couple of conclusions that can be drawn: (1) there are multiple ways to train to succeed, or (2) there really is a best way, but very few runners, coaches, and scientists know what it is, and the talent of the athletes is the real driver of their success, whether they are Olympians or good recreational runners.
I believe the second conclusion is the right one.
There are many ways to make chicken parmigiana, but there is a way that will make chicken parmigiana taste the best—by adding the precise amount of the right ingredients at the right times during the cooking process. Cooking involves chemistry—the way flavors interact with one another, how the heating process activates the flavor and the nutrients in the ingredients, and so on.
Training a runner also involves chemistry and is even more complicated than cooking because of biological adaptation. How do we know the precise combination of workout ingredients that will lead a runner to a physiological peak? How do we know what the best order of those workouts are? How do we know when in the training plan to do them? How do we know how much of a given type of workout to do? How do we know the right time to do another workout after doing a workout on Tuesday? How do we know what that workout on Tuesday (and then the next one, and the next one) should be?
These are hard questions for science to answer. The questions keep me up at night, because the scientist, coach, and runner in me wants to know the precise combination of workouts that make a runner reach his or her genetic potential. Some coaches try to answer them through years of trial and error. But most coaches and runners don’t pay attention to how they’re cooking the chicken parmigiana.
Ever notice that good female runners have very narrow hips?
Women’s wider hips compared to men create a more pronounced angle between the pelvis and the knee (called the quadriceps-angle or Q-angle), as the femur occurs at a more oblique angle compared to the femur of a man. A large Q-angle causes the patella to be more off-center from the tibia, which affects the alignment of the legs in the frontal plane. Tracking of the patella against the femur is dependent on direction of the force produced by the quadriceps. With a wide Q-angle, there is more lateral movement of the patella as the quadriceps contract, which can potentially put female runners at a greater risk for knee injuries (e.g., patellofemoral pain syndrome) than male runners. Research has shown that, although many females who have knee pain tend to have larger Q-angles, some studies have shown that there is no relationship between Q-angle and the development of knee pain, which suggests that factors other than or in addition to Q-angle (e.g., weak hip abductor muscles) contribute to the development of knee injuries. It seems that Q-angle is at least partially responsible for knee injury risk among female runners since a large Q-angle can influence a female runner’s knee joint biomechanics upon foot strike with the ground, especially when weak hip abductor muscles are unable to compensate to create greater stability upon landing.
A larger Q-angle also puts women at a mechanical disadvantage when running. After a woman’s leg lands on the ground, she must push off the ground to propel herself forward. The application of muscular force has both a magnitude and direction. And the direction the force is applied has both a horizontal and vertical component. The more parallel a runner’s leg is to her body when it’s on the ground (i.e., the smaller the Q-angle), the greater the amount of the applied muscle force is transmitted in the vertical direction to the tendons to move the bones.
With wide hips and a large Q-angle, the femur is at an angle when the leg is on the ground. Thus, there is a greater dispersion of force in different directions, with some of the force of the muscles surrounding the femur (quadriceps in the front and hamstrings in the back) being lost in the horizontal direction rather than being transmitted into propelling the runner forward. If you watch elite female runners, you’ll notice they have very narrow hips that more closely resemble male runners. Research has shown that the hip width of very good female runners is similar to that of both athletic and even non-athletic males. Narrow hips allow runners to direct more of the muscular force into forward propulsion.
Learn more about Q-angle and how to train female runners with the REVO₂LUTION RUNNING™ certification.
I started my coaching career in 1997 at a college in New Jersey. I was the head coach at 24 years old, which made me one of, if not the, youngest head college coach in the country. I was very proud of that. I was fresh off my bachelor’s and master’s degrees from the top schools in the world for exercise physiology and biomechanics. I was arrogant. In the years since, I have grown as a coach, an academic, and a person, but the deep passion has remained the same. Here’s a few things I love about coaching.
* Being a scientist and researcher. I love applying the science and research to cause specific physiological changes that will enable a runner to get faster. I love finding out why something works and why something doesn’t work. I love hypothesizing and trying training strategies to test those hypotheses.
* Being an artist. I love organizing all of the training components and workouts into a systematic, progressive plan and balancing the right amounts of stress and recovery.
* Being a student. I love learning. I believe knowledge is power. I love understanding physiology, biomechanics, and training, and what it takes to get faster. I’m always reading and studying.
* Being a teacher. I love teaching the how and why of effective training so that the runner understands why we’re doing what we’re doing and can become part of the process.
* Being a strategist. I love strategizing with my athletes on how to train and race.
* Being an inspirer. I love inspiring runners to see and do what’s possible. To be in that position is truly a gift.
* Being a competitor. I love producing athletes and teams who beat their opponents. I have always been extremely competitive.
* Being a pursuer of excellence. I always want to be a better coach and I want my athletes to be better athletes.
Whatever it is you pursue, be a pursuer of excellence.
Stomach get queasy when you run? Feel like you have to poop your shorts? You’re not alone. Gastrointestinal distress is a common problem among runners. Try these 8 things to minimize the risk:
1. Avoid high-fiber foods in the few days before the race.
2. Ingest multiple types of carbohydrates during the race (which use different transporters), such as glucose and fructose, instead of more of the same amount of a single carbohydrate such as glucose.
3. Ingest carbohydrates during the race in more, smaller amounts rather than fewer, larger amounts.
4. Ingest carbohydrates with sufficient water during the race.
5. Avoid high-fructose foods the day before the race.
6. Avoid dehydration. Drink!
7. Avoid aspirin and NSAIDs such as ibuprofen.
8. Practice pre-race and race-day nutrition plan many times before race day.